Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Consumption Of Coffee For America - 927 Words

Introduction and Background According to Harvard’s School of Public Health, 54 percent of Americans over the age of eighteen drink coffee every day. The daily consumption of coffee for Americans is an average of 3.1 (9-ounce) cups. The popular demand for coffee is because caffeine is the key ingredient. Caffeine is used as a kick-start for most people in the morning for an extra energy boost. However, once that feeling of extra energy subsides the human body begins to feel exhausted. A new product that we wish to add to the menu will be an invigorating lemonade. This new product will only be offered during the summer months of June, July, and August. Depending on how well our clients respond to our new drink, we will eventually add to the flavors of lemonade available. During the warmer months of the year, most people are looking to relax while enjoying a refreshing drink. Avenue 209 offers a wide assortment of coffees and teas, however, during the summer months the coffee market drops drastically. In order to make up for sales throughout these months, we will offer a new signature drink. We will add an assortment of lemonades to our menu. To start, there will be 3 flavors to choose from which include; strawberry, lavender and original. To add an appealing look and boost of flavor, all natural fruits will be added to drinks. The goal of this proposal is to recommend a minor menu expansion. This document will analyze the benefits that will be gained by offering a signatureShow MoreRelatedCoffee Consumption in USA1265 Words   |  5 PagesSynopsis National coffee drinking trends statistics in 2012 shows a tremendous increase in the consumption of coffee in the country. The data show a general increase in all demographics consumption behaviors. Significant increase is in age groups 18 to 39 with the largest jump in consumption observed in gourmet coffee. The data from the national coffee association (NCA) show current behaviors of coffee consumption such as single cup brewing taking the lead in coffee taking style. Data collectionRead MoreThe Coffee Crisis1069 Words   |  5 PagesYoung To begin, The Coffee Crisis is about an acute coffee crisis and how it threatens millions of small coffee farmers around the world and is putting economic growth, as well as social and political stability, at risk in scores of coffee producing countries in Central and South America, Africa and Asia. In 2004, the governments of coffee producing countries were considering how to respond to the dramatic decline in coffee prices caused in part by a large increase in coffee production in BrazilRead MoreCoffee Consumption By Jessica Mcclarney1189 Words   |  5 Pages Coffee Consumption Jessica McClarney Hawaii Pacific Universityâ€Æ' Introduction As a consumer, the major aim is to maximize utility at the highest level possible. However, this goal is normally pursued hand in hand with another goal of cost minimization. Consumer wants to achieve the highest satisfaction but in the lowest cost possible. Due to this reason, consumers therefore, tends to try their level best in various ways to minimize the total cost incurred in taking a product from the producerRead MoreThe Coffee Crisis1045 Words   |  5 PagesJoe Thomas School of Business and Technology: MBA 12/18/2011 U4A1- The Coffee Crisis Dr. John Halstead In â€Å"The Coffee Crisis†, the authors described that in 2004 the governments of coffee producing countries were considering how to respond to rapid decline to coffee prices. Coffee was the main source of income for about twenty-five million small land farmers in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. In 2001, coffee prices hit a forty year low; resulting in extreme hardship for many farming communitiesRead MoreCoffee Culture : A Beginning Of Coffee1136 Words   |  5 PagesCOFFEE CULTURE A beginning of coffee : The beginning of the coffee is the most famous story in the history of the coffee bean is that they were discovered by goats. Ethiopian legend, Kaldi, a goat herder one day was out with his goats and noticed that they got eating red berries and goats were dancing and excited after eating barries. He thought! this must be good stuff, he also tasted them and also felt a bit excited too. He actually went to a local sufi (Ioosely translated as IslamicRead MoreHistory and Production of Coffee and its Presence in the United States1283 Words   |  6 Pages Ever since its discovery, coffee has continued to spread its bitter or sweet taste all over the world. When taking a look at coffee’s journey from its simple beginnings, to its complex processing, and to its extensive use and consumption, one cannot help but be amazed at how prosperous and vital it has become American foodways. Coffee’s backgrounds are surprisingly diverse. Many of the characteristics, as well as the credit for its distribution, have come from several different cultures. For exampleRead MoreSupply And Demand Of Coffee979 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Coffee is one of the most widely distributed soft commodities across the world. Globally, consumers use 141 million bags of coffee beans and that amount is projected to rise steadily over the next five years (Toppa, 2015). In recent years, there has been an overwhelming demand for specialty coffee which affects the farmers’ ability to keep up with the supply. Coffee beans are a crop that requires a lot of labor and money, and without economic stability it is difficult for farmersRead MorePsychoactive Substances Should Be Regulated Essay1679 Words   |  7 PagesSome substances were shut out of Western society because their production and consumption served only recreational purposes that did not align with Protestant ethic values, and did not contribute to the further development of the economy. Meanwhile other drugs, mainly coffee became a necessary staple in Western society’s daily life. There are several reasons why society has come to accept caffeine (in the form of coffee and tea) as an accepted stimulant: accessibility, no significant health risksRead MoreResearch and Analysis of Americas Caffeine Consumption986 Words   |  4 Pagesrange from typical colas to coffee, to energy drinks. Each has its own concentration of caffeine, or energy inducing ingredients. Through the consumption of these beverages, many individuals develop a habit of dependency. Those who consume, often do so in large quantities. Large amounts of caffeine can potentially be harmful to an individuals health when consumed vigorously. Below is a chart from the Specialty Coffee Association of America indicating consumption within America. According to the dataRead MoreCoffee Crisis1164 Words   |  5 PagesUnit 4 Assignment 1 â€Å"The Coffee Crisis† By Stephen Quinlan amp; Jose Gomez-Ibanez Case Analysis Michael G. Castro Capella University MBA6008 – Global Economic Environment Professor Hadsell February 13, 2013 Introduction Stephen Quinlan and Jose Gomez-Ibanez describes, in â€Å"The Coffee Crisis†, that in 2004 the governments of coffee producing countries were considering how to respond to rapid decline to coffee prices. In 2001, coffee prices hit a forty-year low, which resulted

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Taking a Look at Utilitarianism - 655 Words

Introduction Living as a utilitarian is more easily expressed than done. Thinking about the betterment of humanity is not something everyone wants to cerebrate or worry about. Ideally, utilitarianism would be prosperous if the view was shared among the world. Coming in from a thoroughly nescient perspective, I was unsure of the possibilities, and unsure of the impact I would have on a topic I knew nothing about. Explanation of Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is the subsistence of pleasure and the absence of pain; both being the substructure of everything that people desire, and as the foundation of morality. Pursuing ones own happiness at the expense of convivial ecstasy would not be moral under utility. Additionally, there are different degrees of Utilitarianism. You have the Jeremy Bentham-style utilitarianism, and then you have a more subtle concept of John Stuart Mill’s philosophy. The more utilitarian a person is, the less the person is consummated. Living as a true utilitarian comes at a great cost, you lose the exhilaration and adventure of life. There are other types of Utilitarianism; including act and rule utilitarianism. The difference between act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism is that, with act utilitarianism, one must evaluate each act individually to see if it will maximize net happiness. With rule utilitarianism, one first tries to determine which rules would maximize net happiness, then acts according to those rules. Act utilitarianism says: anShow MoreRelatedAct Utilitarianism And Rule Utilitarianism978 Words   |  4 Pagesamount of pleasure to a situation: act and rule utilitarianism. I will define both act and rule utilitarianism, give a situatio n where both can be applied, and respond to an objection of utilitarianism. I will also be discussing why I believe act utilitarianism helps more people than rule utilitarianism, in turn, becoming ‘superior’ to rule utilitarianism. 2. To begin, I will be defining both act and rule utilitarianism. In act utilitarianism, you determine the morality of an act by measuringRead MoreMaking Decisions about Ethical Matters1742 Words   |  7 Pagesvarious systems put in place to provide rules and guidelines as to how to ensure that what is decided is morally right. Here, we will take a look at the view of utilitarianism, and discuss an important flaw it presents us with. Many articles include discussions that look at this in great depth, where it appears the once highly renowned system of utilitarianism has revealed to us various hidden flaws and complications. Under the wing of the utilitarianistic view, to determine something to be morallyRead MoreShould Justin Ellsworths Parents Have Been Given Access to His Email?1102 Words   |  5 Pagesinto utilitarian ethics, I discovered there are many different types of utilitarian ethics, rule utilitarianism, act utilitarianism, two-level utilitarianism, motive utilitarianism, negative utilitarianism, average utilitarianism, and total utilitarianism. Although there are a lot of different types of utilitarian ethics, I will look at this problem using rule and act utilitarian. Act utilitarianism states that, when faced with a choice, we must first consider the likely consequences of potentialRead MoreMill s Utilitarianism : Utilitarianism1251 Words   |  6 PagesMill’s Utilitarianism For centuries philosophers have attempted to explain morals, creating ideas that break this ethical system down into basic components. English philosopher, John Stuart Mill, was a large contributor to the idea of utilitarianism. Although Mill’s utilitarianism provides a strong argument for explaining morality, it is not a bulletproof theory. J.S. Mill’s Principle of utility, also known as the greatest happiness principle, is an ethical philosophy that looks at the developmentRead MoreEssay about Utilitarianism and Happiness845 Words   |  4 Pagesis determined by maximizing utility (pleasure or happiness).it looks at the consequence of an action as to whether the outcome is good to the majority of people affected by it. According to Bentham, utilitarianism is the greatest happiness or greatest felicity principle. There are many types of this theory which include act vs. rule, two level, motive, negative and average vs. total. (Clifford G., John C. 2009) In act utilitarianism, when people have to make choices, they should consider the consequencesRead MoreUtilitarianism : Theory And Contemporary Issues1350 Words   |  6 Pagesproblems by taking the path that best benefits us. The theory of utilitarianism provides a solution to this but at what cost? What are the benefits and disadvantages of utilitarianism? Is utilitarianism an idea one should live by? What is utilitarianism? I plan on answering these questions within this paper and understand how they relate to everyday life. I will also look at arguments for and against utilitarianism. Then analyze the appealing and unappealing features to determine if utilitarianism shouldRead MoreHow Can An Injustice Be Changed?1186 Words   |  5 Pageslife†. Global climate change refers to the alteration of the Earth’s atmosphere temperature (Glossary). Utilitarianism is a theory to find alternatives to combat global climate change. Utilitarianism focuses on the positives influences that come to the greatest number of people (bus dic). To observe a successful response and the likelihood of success one will need to be aware of the objectives to look for. Also, my solution for changing the way the world deals with global climate change and the reasoningRead MoreMoralism And Immanuel Kant And Utilitarianism1746 Words   |  7 Pagesmany people will observe the decision and look to see if it is moral or not. On the other hand, people will look for the outcome of that action and the effects it will have on people. The argument when deciding based on moral beliefs, or solely on the consequences has always been a debate. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that focuses not on the action itself, but the consequences that come from those actions. In a point in time people began to look at their own philological teachings on theRead MoreEffectiveness of Utilitarianism as a Modern Moral Theory927 Words   |  4 Pageshuman understanding of the world. While a number of moral theories exist, none of them is more well documented that Utilitarianism, which focuses on the maximization of total utility. I will discuss the theory initially, and then identify the major problems associated with it. I will conclude with a rationale as to how effective Utilitarianism is as a modern moral theory. Utilitarianism is quite a broad theory, with different constructs. However, the underlying agenda is the same: actions should beRead MoreA Look At Ethical Egoism Essay933 Words   |  4 PagesA look at Ethical Egoism Introduced in 1874 by Henry Sidgwick in his book The Moral of Ethics, Ethical Egoism is an ethical theory that states that one ought to do what is in their best long term interest. This theory states that a morally correct being must in all cases do the thing that will give them the best result for their long term being. [1] Ethical Egoism stems from the idea that the self is the most important thing and that an ethical being has a moral obligation to do what is in the

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Consumerism A New Layer Of Commodity Fetishism - 1300 Words

Consumerism is economic policies that place emphasis on informed consumption to protect consumers from unethical marketing activities. Consumers are free to make choices on the products they want to consume. This should orient manufacturers to produce consumer-oriented products, but the industrial revolution has made the food industry a money-making market. Capitalism is the main hindrance of ethical consumerism with products being advertised on various platforms, making a negative impact on food choices. Organic labeling provides information to consumers about the origins of a commodity and the conditions under which they are produced. It encourages consumers to make better food choices. Capitalism exploits ethical consumerism which then acts as â€Å"a new layer of commodity fetishism† (Gunderson, 2014, p. 109). Capitalism is a political and economic system in a country which is controlled by private owners generally for profit purposes. Consumer choices should lead to a free market, instead it is exploiting consumers. Ethical consumerism has been on the rise lately and consumers demand ethical commodities like organic and locally grown foods. Individual choices can lead the marketplace to a progressive social change. Producers of these commodities influence customer’s purchasing decisions through advertising and not letting them make individual choices. Consumer choice does not seem to have an effect on the type of commodities produced. It is ambiguous that food proje cts andShow MoreRelatedOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesothers who should know better) to trivialize this very problematic and challenging subject. This is not the case with the present book. This is a book that deserves to achieve a wide readership. Professor Stephen Ackroyd, Lancaster University, UK This new textbook usefully situates organization theory within the scholarly debates on modernism and postmodernism, and provides an advanced introduction to the heterogeneous study of organizations, including chapters on phenomenology, critical theory and psychoanalysis

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

How Is Intelligence Measured - 1395 Words

How is intelligence measured? How is it possible to just have one way to measure intelligence? Is there really only one way to measure every individual’s intelligence? According to psychologists Howard Gardner and Robert Sternberg there is. Gardner and Sternberg have developed two different theories to do so. Howard Gardner’s theory of intelligence is the way in which one carries out life goals. Gardner chose eight abilities that held to meet criteria: linguistic (speak and write well), logical-mathematical (use logical and mathematical skills to solve problems such as scientific quotations), spatial (think and reason about objects in three dimensional space), musical (preform, understand and enjoy music), bodily-kinesthetic (manipulate†¦show more content†¦Each one of them are different and that’s why we asked ourselves is it really just one way to measure everyone’s intelligence? Howard Gardner is a psychologist that developed the multiple intelligence theory. He identified three original domains of functioning, each of which has several more specialized functions. :(a) cognitive or thought area which involves verbal-linguistic intelligence (learning and using language); (b) Logical mathematical intelligence is how a person understands and uses logical mathematics and abstract symbol systems; (c) a sensate area, which helps with auditory components. A few other domains include practical intelligence and creative intelligence. With practical intelligence you may ask questions such as: how does a person relate to the world around them? Do they have the ability to adapt to certain situations? With creative intelligence you may ask questions such as: how quickly can this person solve a new problem when presented with it? Can they automatically apply a new skill when they are presented with the problem again? Robert Sternberg’s theory of intelligence is the triarchic theory of intelligence. The triarchic theory describes three different types of intelligences that a person can possess. The first type of intelligence is practical intelligence which relates to how you react to your ability to adapt to it or change it to suit your needs. Practical intelligence is the ability

The Benefits of Meditation Free Essays

The Benefits of Meditation The importance of relaxation and meditation cannot be overstated. Not only is it good for the individual, but for the world as a whole. iThe new world view emphasizes the interconnectedness and interdependence of all phenomena, as well as the emboldens of the individuals and societies in the cyclical processes of nature (Capra 390). We will write a custom essay sample on The Benefits of Meditation or any similar topic only for you Order Now The systems theory provides that whatever is good for the individual, is good for the entire system of all ecology. Depak Chopra states that whatever is good for the ecology is good for the health of the universe, for all things are interrelated. He calls this quantum healing. For this reason, it is imperative that an individual takes responsibility to keep the body and mind in good health. One of the most pleasant ways to achieve this type of euphoria is through meditation and relaxation. Meditation can be achieved through yoga, relaxation techniques, Shamanic journeying, channeling, or exercise programs such as Tai Chi. The purpose of all of these exercises is to increase the body’s energy flow and to] ward off sickness and contagious disease (Weiss 352). Tai Chi is a program that moves energy through the body. It uses the idea of pushing outward, moving the bad energy out, which leaves room for the good energy to enter. If the body is not cleared of the bad energy, the good cannot enter. This is accomplished through proper breathing, as Lao Tzu stated. Proper breathing is facilitated by all of the aforementioned meditation techniques. Yoga is another style of body movement which works in the same manner as Tai Chi. Through a specific routine, the individual moves and cleanses energy, so that not only air, but blood and intelligence can flow freely throughout the mind and body. As satirist Adams, creator of the Dilbert cartoon has often said, one of the best ways to achieve what one wants out of life is by writing out or stating affirmations. The process he recommends, and which he attributes to his own success, is the process of creative visualization. Shakti Gawain states that the benefits to be gained from this process of seeing yourself as having completed goals, brings physical health, a healthy self-image, good relationships, forgiveness and release, and success (Gawain 122-123). The advantage of visualizing the future is that the information visualized creates a steady message to the body, mind and soul about the exact goals it wants to pursue and receive. For this reason, it is a very powerful means of achieving goals. Shamanic journeying is also a hands-on approach, which entails relaxation to a repetitive drum beat or musical score, and a conscious intent to move a specific sickness (one at a time) out of the body. Shamanic journeying, much like a transcendental meditation on another plane, can be used to undo the past and move the ties that bind from the body, or it can be used to remove psychological dis-ease from the mind. Much like a physical manifestation of psychological treatment, the mind and body can be healed by Shamanic means within a very short period of time, however . In the past, most of this work was done by a Shaman or Medicine person, but today, the individual can take responsibility for this work (Newhouse and Amodeo 48-52). The important thing to remember when journeying are these lines from a poem by Nancy Wood: iAll of my life rolled out from my feet,i and iAt the same time I made a hole in the sky (Newhouse and Amodeo 50). This epitomizes the release and intake of energy. This same type of process is involved in channeling, a quiet form of relaxation which is a 20 minute process that recognizes the seven chakras and their relationship to the earth and sky points of the body. A channel opens all seven points to let energy flow down, up and out in order to cleanse, create and love. Through the lower chakras the energy cleanses down through the stomach (yellow), intestines (orange), and reproductive organs (red). Once these are clean, the heart (green/pink) is opened, and from there the throat/voice (blue), vision/third eye (purple), and mind (purple) can be opened to the heavens for universal information and communication. In all cases, the meeting place in the body is the heart. When love is sensed and cleansed, it can then flow outward to everyone and everything in the immediate vicinity and the universe (Stevens 224-229). Not only does this heal the body, but it heals the universe and all that receive the cleansed outward energy. All of these processes are not only for the purpose of cleansing the body, mind and soul or for creating the world that an individual wants for himself or herself. They are means to effect changes in the universe. Worldwide group meditations are held to correct all kinds of ills on this planet. They are held nightly and on specific dates. The perception experienced by the participants is a sense of complete peace and also of sensation. Works Cited Capra, Fritjof. Holistic Health Holistic Peace. in The New Holistic Health Handbook, Living Well in a New Age. Ed. Shepherd Bliss. Lexington MA: Penquin Books. (1985). Gawain, Shakti. iCreative Visualization. ,i in The New Holistic Health Handbook, Living Well in a New Age. Ed. Shepherd Bliss. Lexington MA: Penquin Books. (1985). Newhouse, Sandy R. M. A. Amodeo, John, Ph. D. Native American Healing. in The New Holistic Health Handbook, Living Well in a New Age. Ed. Shepherd Bliss. Lexington MA: Penquin Books. (1985). Stevens, Petey. iPsychic Healing. in The New Holistic Health Handbook, Living Well in a New Age. Ed. Shepherd Bliss. Lexington MA: Penquin Books. (1985). Weiss, Shandor. Tai Chi Chuan as a Healing Art. in The New Holistic Health Handbook, Living Well in a New Age. Ed. Shepherd Bliss. Lexington MA: Penquin Books. (1985 ). How to cite The Benefits of Meditation, Papers

Mixed extracts of bilimbi free essay sample

Curiosity and the willingness to come up with a unique substitute for chemical-based bleaches is the main reason of the researchers. They found out that instead of making it to juice and eating the calamansi, kamias, and tomato. It can also be used as a bleaching agent. Calamansi and tomato in relation to chemistry, contains ascorbic acid which is an active reducing agent (as opposed to an oxidizing agent) while the kamias has an acid component namely the oxalic acid in which it is widely used as an acid rinse in laundries, where it is effective in removing rust and ink stains. The researchers combine these fruits to create a unique stain remover which comes from originally fruit and vegetable extracts, in launching this study, researchers made a survey on how to convert the expensive detergent product which is also an eco-friendly product. And also they select this study, in order to enhance the previous research works which has been done by the scientists and researchers. We will write a custom essay sample on Mixed extracts of bilimbi or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In this experiment, researchers made observations about it to be more effective as a substitute to chemical-based bleaches. According to some research, stain remover must have a PH scale characteristics inorder to determine the spotting solutions. The behaviors of cleaning products are; 1. Ensures the feasibility of stain removal; 2. Reduces the risk of damaging the fabrics; and 3. Limits the time in laundering. The researchers are far-reaching a technique for the coverage on how to interfere the complexity in using this economical stain remover. The purpose of the study is to convert chemical-based bleaches into economical stain remover and eventually, for the consumer’s satisfaction and for the benefits to our local farmer. The researchers made this eco-friendly stain remover have an alternative stain remover from chemical- based bleaches. And also, the main goal is to help our nature. . General objectives- to determine the acidity or PH scale in each extract of the fruits. . Specific objectives- to effectively eradicate some types of stains SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY To the laundry workers, the proposed study can help them to save money and do not contain high quality of chemical that can burn skin. Economy and local farmers, the proposed study could also benefit to them because the researchers selected just the local fruit from our country. To the researchers, the proposed study can be further improved by the students who have the same study of these products. To all users, the proposed study can benefit some people especially those who are saving money because the product doesn’t need much time and just cheap and this fruits can be commonly seen in the surrounding. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS In this study, the researchers perform the experiment in Danao City on March 28, 2014 at 8:30 PM. The researchers will gather the results of stained clothes soaking it in the product. Over-ripped kamias. , calamansi and tomato will not be used in this experiment. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE HISTORY A New Stain Mixture: Aceto-Orcein-Fast-Green A new mixture consisting of aceto-orcein, fast green, and salt is described. The mixture provides contrast between nuclear material, nucleoli and cytoplasm without differentiation. We have found it most useful in the staining of teased tissues, squashes, smears and suspensions (fixed and unfixed). We recommend it for the great speed and simplicity with which it provides a stain having the contrast of much more laborious histological techniques. HYPOTHESIS The researchers predicted that the eco-friendly stain remover can remove stains. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS RECORDING OF DATE AND INTERPRETATION Fruits and extracts Acidity/PH scale Calamansi 2. 5-3 Camias ginger lily 4. 47 Tomatoes 4. 1-4. 6 Based on the data shown above, the following extracts of fruits can remove type of stains like rust, coffee, ink and etc.  because all the extract are proven acids. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSION Based on the data revealed on the findings, the researchers concluded that the fruits extracts can effectively eliminate some types of stains. RECOMMENDATIONS: The following recommendations are formulated and are highly suggested: 1. The researchers are truly recommending this study to be enhanced by the future generation. In which, the researchers study can be competitive than the che mical-based products. 2. The product should not be drunk. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researchers would like to thank the following individuals who made this study and product successful. First, to God who gave the researchers a determination, strength, and knowledge that makes the product possible. Next, to their parents, who guide them and support them especially to the financial assistance. And lastly the researchers would extend their finest gratitude to their advisers Mrs. Mary Jean Sigayle, Mr. Roderick Cayamanda, and importantly Mrs. Dorie Ann Bareja for guiding the researchers and for the patience they gave to finally make the product.

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Managing Under Uncertainty Personal Reflection

Question: Discuss about theManaging Under Uncertaintyfor Personal Reflection. Answer: Introduction The group work is one of the most important organizational dynamics in which we can benefit from the cooperative learning. However, it should be implemented properly, without which there would be negative consequences. I was quite afraid at the beginning since there are different individuals with different attitudes in the group. I may not understand the psychological characteristics of the members of the group. There are three members in the group who belong to different countries as well as display different personality attributes. One of them was an extrovert and two of them are introverts. I am an introvert who is unable to interact with others easily. I was apprehensive about the fact that how would the introverts works with a through extrovert. However, when I read the decision-making theories, I was confident that it is possible to arrive at a common decision. There can be a variety of decisions that are taken on a day to day basis. There can be variety of decisions such as decisions regarding uncertainty, complexity, high risk consequences and there can be interpersonal issues (Jaeger et al., 2013). There are programmed decisions as well as non-programmed decisions. The organizations can also engage in routine as well as strategic decisions in every day functioning. There are several tactical decisions as well as operational decisions that need to be taken by the managers (Jaeger et al., 2013). We performed a combination of these types of decisions and had a good experience on the decision-making attributes. The Personality Theory takes into account the inherent characteristics of the individuals that are consistent with their behaviors within a period of time. The Big 5 model states that there are five personality factors responsible for determining the type of individuals. In our group I observed that the introvert members showed signs of conscientiousness as they were organized as well as dependable in their decision making process. They also displayed characteristics of Openness to experience as they appreciated the unusual ideas as well as variety of experiences. The Myers Brigs Type Indicator displays the psychological preference of the people and the way they perceive the whole world. The introverts were systematizer and strategizer. They were quiet, serious, orderly and practical in their decision making approach. They were sensible as well as patient. They were reserved, curious and were action oriented. One of the introverts was judge who used to judge the situations and arrive at a decision. The extrovert in our group displayed the characteristics of performer, socializer and innovator. The performer was easygoing, friendly and possessed practical ability. He was popular, talkative and was attentive to detail. The extrovert was outspoken, quick and often neglected the routine tasks. He was enthusiastic as well as inspiring when presented with difficult situations. The bounded rationality model states that it is possible for efficient decision making by utilizing certain stages (Jaeger et al., 2013). The decision maker finds the instances which needs adequate decision. The next step involves the formulation of possible courses of action. The group members engaged in brainstorming and decide the required courses of action (Jaeger et al., 2013). The extrovert person gave most of the ideas and leaded the group. He engaged the other members to share their own ideas. I was afraid at the beginning and thought that my ideas may face criticism. However, the other members of the group encouraged me to communicate the ideas freely. The group members, after discussion, engaged in selecting the best possible course of action. I was hesitant at first; however, I also gave my interpretation to the group. During the initial period of working in a team, I faced several issues. There was an absence of team identity and we lacked focus while working together. It was difficult for us to get started. We exchanged names with each other and developed an agenda. In spite of these measures, we were unable to start off with our work. One of my group members (an introvert) was not contributing fully to the decision-making activity. He was quiet and was unable to communicate with the other members of the team. There was a conflict that arises in the group regarding the decision to be taken. The conflict was not solved for a long time, which decreased our work performance. There was a cold war which was happening in the team in which the members were unable to communicate freely with each other. This made us unable to focus on our work as we were getting distracted by the conflicts that were taking place in the team. At times, we faced the issue of ineffective leadership and that deviated us from fulfilling our goal. There was poor communication between the team members as the introverts were unable to interact with the other team members. I have learnt that it is important to perform collaborative decision making when acting in a group. The collaborative decision making is a kind of decision making that takes into account the individual opinions while arriving at a decision in a group (Harstad Selten, 2013). At first, I thought that the extrovert person would be dominating when arriving at a decision. However, all the members equally contributed to the decision-making activities. When there was a need for making a decision, we gave individual view points and each one of us gave alternatives. I assumed that the extrovert would not listen to us, however, I was wrong. He gave us the chance to speak and hence there was efficient decision making. I learnt that decision making is relevant when done with several other people. I have learnt that there are many advantages of working in a team. The team work fosters the creativity of the members and it emphasizes on creating innovative products (Schultz Gtz, 2016). It is possible to blend the relative strengths of the employees when working in a group. The working in a group fosters trust among the group members. There is an improvement in the interpersonal relationship between the team members. The team work builds the skills required for effective conflict resolution (Schultz Gtz, 2016). A wide sense of ownership is being created and there is an increase in the workplace effectiveness. I often wondered that individual decision making is a good option and doubted if group decision making is really effective or not. The individual decision making comprises of the thought process of self and its contribution to the decision making process (Sin-Echaluce et al., 2015). I have a tendency to think and I like to question before I perform a particular task. They have certain pros and cons of individual decision making. It saves a considerable amount of time as the individuals engage in fast decision making. My individual decisions are rational as well as focused towards the goals. The individuals are accountable for their own acts which prevent the person from taking wrong decisions. There are several disadvantages of the individual decision making as well. This kind of decision making does not take into account multiple perspectives as there is only one entity involved in decision making. I would use my own views and intuition and hence there is a possibility of inadequate decision making. It does not take into account all the interest of the members and hence the decision may not be appropriate. There are several advantages as well as disadvantages of group decision making activities. We realized the advantages after we successfully completed the team building exercise. There is diversity of opinions in a group which leads to effective decision making. The exchange of ideas as well as opinions enriches the quality of decision making (Kaner, 2014). There is more participation as well as interest of the individuals. The members of the group display positive attributes as it improves the quality of the decision (Kaner, 2014). The collective contribution of the team members makes it possible to remove the factors of unreliability. Our group displayed active participation from all the team members as there was a healthy relationship between the team members. There was democratic decision making in the group which improved the decision-making quality. Our decision was more acceptable as well as perceivable and was well coordinated to meet our objectives. The group discussion helps to develop a large number of innovative ideas which is not possible if there is individual decision making (Kaner, 2014). There are different opinions in a group which expanded the scope of the decisions. Another issue faced by us was that the introvert members were silent at times and they didnt participate in the decision-making process. They were unsure about their opinions and perceive that the opposite person may contradict his ideas. There is also the instance of bias in the decision-making activity. It is possible that the members belong to the same entity which would prevent them from making impartial decisions. There are several techniques that helped us to make decisions in a group. The first method used is brainstorming, which comprises of finding solutions for specific problems by the collection of a list of ideas (Litchfield, 2013). Each one of us gave several ideas aimed for solving the issue in question. We also used a more structured approach such as nominal group technique. The nominal group technique involves the solution generation, identification of problem and the decision making (Harvey Holmes, 2012). We generated the ideas independently and wrote them down in a piece of paper. We didnt interact among ourselves and hence we could avoid the dominance of the extrovert personality. The ideas were collected by our group coordinator and then shared to everyone one by one. We also welcomed any necessary suggestions from the team members. We also adopted a third method of decision making known as didactic interaction, in certain situations. This approach works best when there is a re quirement of only yes-no solution (Liddicoat Tudini, 2013). I found this method of decision making is quite effective in the controlled situation. We engaged in exhaustive investigation as we understood that the selected alternative can have strong consequences. We had also developed a contingency plan that would effectively address the issues that may come up with the decision-making process. I was afraid regarding the way the decision-making activity would turn up. However, I enjoyed during the group work activity as it gave me the opportunity to communicate with few people. I was able to deliver the appropriate decisions that were suitable for the situation. I followed all the essential steps of decision making and implemented them accordingly. We learnt from the mistakes done by us in the initial phase of the decision-making process. This personal reflection would broaden the understanding of the process of decision making. References Harstad, R. M., Selten, R. (2013). Bounded-rationality models: tasks to become intellectually competitive.Journal of Economic Literature,51(2), 496-511. Harvey, N., Holmes, C. A. (2012). 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